HTTP/1.1 200 OK Cache-Control: no-cache, private Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8 Date: Sat, 28 Nov 2020 16:39:54 GMT 黄色片成年人

[X] CLOSEMAIN MENU

[X] CLOSEIN THIS SECTION

Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

道·哈德森,学院理事会执行官

Show MoreHide

“We are currently investigating how this could have happened, and deeply regret that this occurred,” PwC said. “We appreciate the grace with which the nominees, the Academy, ABC, and Jimmy Kimmel handled the situation.”
Other notable ladies who made the list include Kate Upton (No. 8), Taylor Swift (No. 12), Kim Kardashian (No. 38), and Sofia Vergara (No. 100.)
第二步 重复标志性动作

学会控制自己的情绪,控制自己的想法,克服对被拒绝的恐惧,学会向别人敞开心扉。
[k?n'sist?ntli]
"This is something we believe is really important for the future of our country,"Facebook (FB, Fortune 500) CEO Mark Zuckerberg said in August.

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

当心!租房“押一付一”背后,可能是可怕的陷阱

调查指出,关键的是,世界的不稳定性和冲突可能继续推动通货膨胀并影响某些城市的生活成本。
新年英文祝福语大全
1.Rain Man

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

To Frans de Waal [The Netherlands and USA] and Jennifer Pokorny [USA] for discovering that chimpanzees can recognize other chimpanzees from seeing photographs of their rear ends.
时间:2010-03-31 编辑:vicki
《楚乔传》

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • Edward Luce
  • 调查:近半家庭认为所在城市房价高
  • 同时,2016年应届毕业生选择就业的比例有所上升,比例由2015年的71.2%提高到 75.6%。
  • 恒生指数:龙湖集团 、碧桂园纳入国企指数
  • 第十四届绿建大会明年珠海召开
  • securities
    [iks'p?nn]

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 二线城市房价涨幅收窄 合肥调控新政效果初显, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

Show MoreHide

The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

掌握“大数据”,助力门窗企业抢占市场

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

楼市调控不放松 热门城市渐冷静

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

Show MoreHide

How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • in内+tend伸展+ed→故意的;打算中的
    E-cigarettes first started becoming popular in 2012. They work by heating a nicotine fluid to mimic a real cigarette. Their invention is usually credited to Chinese pharmacist Hon Lik, who reportedly created it after he dreamed that he was drowning in a cloud of vapor. His father had died of lung cancer caused by cigarettes. He himself was an unrepentant smoker who had unsuccessfully tried quitting by using a nicotine patch.
  • 几周的流言结束后,菲尔-杰克逊依然没能成功交易走卡梅罗-安东尼和德里克-罗斯,虽然从球队长远的利益来看绝对得送走他俩。
    Rose McGowan accused producer Harvey Weinstein of rape this time last year, sparking an avalanche of allegations in the entertainment industry and beyond.
    vi. 获得奖章
    v. 借,供应货款,
    提供就业指导工作的北京新锦程研究院的执行院长张景岫表示,他并没看到高校学生的创业意向有降低的趋势,但是他承认学生的自主创业意向很低。

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 家具业初现马太效应 行业洗牌将持续
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 欧司朗在美国建首个SMT LED模组生产线

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

Show MoreHide

Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

2年前中国股市突破6000点,而2010年股市能否重拾失地呢?当初中国股市行情十分被看好,但今天,如果你问同样的问题,有的人会拿全球经济说事儿——因为全球经济仍旧步履艰难。
Comic skit “I Want To Be In Spring Festival Gala” (Various artistes)
谷歌地图产品经理Bryan Cheng表示,iPhone和Android版用户均可使用该功能。只需打开手机上的谷歌地图,点击屏幕底部的"探索附近饮食",谷歌地图就会根据你所在的地点和时间,分享附近的食物和饮料店铺的地址列表,从"最棒的早餐"到"河畔餐饮"都涵盖在内。
想要谋杀老板的念头并不稀奇,但是当大家所讨论的老板真的死于谋杀时,就不是那么回事了。当警察来询问的时候,他们才知道,克兰斯顿兄弟俩已经辞职并骑着他们的摩托车横跨整个国家。他们俩在被证明清白之前都是嫌疑人。
医疗、医保、医药联动改革
adj. 奢侈的,浪费的,过度的,大量的
10. 2012年搞笑诺贝尔奖之医学奖

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

Show MoreHide

Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

Show MoreHide

Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • 与此同时,布拉德福德大学管理学院(Bradford University School of Management)和爱丁堡大学商学院(University of Edinburgh Business School)的排名均上升16位,分别排在第42名和第55名。剑桥大学(University of Cambridge)佳奇管理学院(Judge Business School)的排名上升15位,排在第14名。
  • 福州定制家具业年产值40亿
  • For now, most of the activity around bitcoin is monetary in nature, so it makes sense that its critics point to volatility. Though the value of one bitcoin in U.S. dollars has fallen 67% in the past year, its value over the past two years is up 1,879%, according to the market price chart at blockchain.info. So whether it’s a good investment or a bad one is a matter of perspective.
    尽管2016年受调查机场的平均准点率同比提高7%至70.4%,但航班平均延误时长为33分钟。
  • 家居品牌纷纷玩起跨界发展
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • There is a natural human tendency to idealize and whitewash days of yore, to cast them in the rosy glow of the mind’s eye.
    The Global Obesity Epidemic
  • 这部13个小时的,关于长毛狗经历的影片花了45年才来到美国的影院,但时机却恰到好处。里维特先生淘气地在巴黎、法国文学与若干永恒的哲学谜题(真实的本质是什么,我们怎么知道我们知道,因与果之间的联系)之间徜徉,它既是一个迷人的,被重新发觉饿出来的艺术品,片长简直疯狂;与此同时,也警示着电影的未来。一切都已经做过了,一切都仍然是可能的。
    Corkin died this year but shortly after, journalist Luke Dittrich published a book claiming Corkin buried inconvenient findings, shredded files, and acted unethically in gaining HM's consent.
  • 这篇文章指出,食用有益于心脏的食物是防止痴呆、保护记忆力的关键。一些心脏病的并发症和阿尔茨海默症以及痴呆症的并发症十分相似,因此研究阿尔茨海默症和痴呆症的教授们认为,有益于心脏的食物大概也有益于大脑和记忆。水果、蔬菜、全麦面包、豆子、坚果和橄榄油都有对心脏有益。如果这10个方法你不能都采用的话,一个健康的饮食至少能让你不要丢失记性。
    NBS senior statistician Sheng Guoqing attributed the slowdown mainly due to a 1.4-percent decline in food prices, which were down for the first time in 15 years.
  • 动词last的现在分
    [ni'glekt]
    During a town hall hosted by MSNBC on last Monday night, host Rachel Maddow asked Clinton whether she would match a campaign promise Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau made good on earlier this year.
  • James Bond Themes 8. "You Only Live Twice" by Nancy Sinatra
    Princess Agents
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 一二线城市土地出让冰火两重天 北京零成交杭州超百亿 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

简一陶瓷广告语惹行业众怒 多地石材协会纷纷举报

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

半数以上大房企有望完成全年销售目标

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

养老服务巨大缺口凸显 万亿级市场引资本竞逐

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

2月杭州楼市淡季不淡 新房成交量创历史同期新高

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • 年度最佳单曲:米兰达·兰伯特《Over You》
  • 这个价码看起来很合适,因为塔克应该比罗斯更适应3D角色,而萨林杰完全无关紧要,同时猛龙保留了他们自己的2017年一轮选秀权
  • 我国颁首部《给水用塑料管道行业公约》推进行业自律

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • John Williams's classic score still raises goosebumps over 40 years after this summer blockbuster hit theaters. Jaws preys on our primal fear of the unknown in deep waters, showing a small beach town ravaged by a series of attacks from a single killer shark. In recent years, environmentalists have stressed the generally nonthreatening nature of sharks, which kill an average of just eight swimmers each year.
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 现在,我们来预测一下社交媒体领域在2014年将发生哪些事情。Snapchat会火起来吗?哪些烦人的“推广消息”(Promoted Tweets)会不会持续不断地入侵你的Twitter信息流?你的老板是否将终于学会如何使用Twitter?这五大趋势有望撼动社交网络世界,以及我们在2014年使用社交媒体的方式:
    凯特 阿普顿
    杜邦自称“金鹰”,有着独特的,鹰隼般的外形。设计师们想塑造出那个外形,但又不想弄得跟杜邦本人一模一样。
  • 尽管你会忙个不停,但是不要忘记赞美生活中不完美的地方。我在徒步攀登喜马拉雅山的十天中了解到生活也有美好的缺陷。高山峻岭的陡峭边缘,午后骤降的冰雹风暴,都给人带来种种不便,但是却为登山旅途增添了几分妙趣。我敏锐地感觉到,在我追求完美事业的过程中,我往往没有认识到,不完美的地方也是我们自身的核心特质,需要保留下来,而不是经常改变。

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • "Twenty Two" featuring the tales of 22 comfort women became the first Chinese documentary to surpass 100 million yuan at the box office.
  • 河北省推广67种绿色建材产品
  • 周期性理论的依据是,新投资不足将导致两三年或五年后出现供应紧张。大量的项目已被延迟,但这对于项目经理而言,不过是要想办法削减成本的一种信号。许多项目经理目前就在这么做。

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 2015年LED行业共获补12亿 都进了谁的口袋?
  • Household substance abuse
  • 工信部划定光伏业门槛 整合大潮实质启动
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

二胎红利短期难兑现 生育成本或制约楼市获益

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 四川出台省级单位办公设备和家具配置标准
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 家居建材企业集体抢滩“双11” 网购四大风险需知
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

Executives in the finance and real estate industries have the highest pay, according to figures from the 1,894 listed companies that announced their annual financial reports in 2016.

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

In comments reported by state news agency Xinhua on Thursday from a speech given at a meeting of regional leaders in Cambodia on Wednesday, Mr Li said the Chinese economy had performed above expectations in 2017 as trade reversed two years of declines.
时间:2009-11-09 编辑:vicki
Everyone knows about Google Analytics, but are you using Google Webmaster Tools? As a marketer, I view Webmaster Tools as one of the most important free tools at my disposal. You want to get found on Google, right? Why not listen to what Google is telling you via Webmaster Tools?
普华永道上周一发布的数据显示,2016年上半年中国内地A股首次公开募股(IPO)数量和融资金额同比均出现了大幅下滑。
The so-called IP-BOX will work on iPhones running iOS 7 and older. It takes 6 seconds to 17 hours hours to crack the four-digit passcode. The Daily Mail purchased the device and cracked the code on an Apple iPhone 5c in 6 hours. A version that will work on iPhones running iOS 9 will be available later this month.
2020年,10美元钞票上将出现一名著名美国女性的画像。
法国兴业银行(Societe Generale)国际策略师基特?朱克斯(Kit Juckes)说,过去30年破灭的三个世界级金融大泡沫背后,都是“美联储(Fed)太久时间将政策利率维持在名义经济增长率之下”。
channel
现年22岁的劳伦斯是《饥饿游戏》电影系列的女主角,她还可能凭借在电影《乌云背后的幸福线》中的表现获得奥斯卡提名。
A total of 16 Chinese companies are in the top 100 on the list, including China Mobile, Alibaba and Tencent.

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

大中城市房价同比环比双升 三线城市需去库存

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • Are you looking at the clothes? Eva Longoria Parker stripped off as she posed with husband Tony to advertise the London Fog fashion line. Eva Longoria Parker s
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • 牌类游戏等休闲类游戏在10大热门游戏中占据了三席,仅次于大型多人在线角色扮演游戏;而腾迅QQ游戏等网页游戏正逐渐成为一个新的增长领域。报告说,截至2009年10月底,排名前5位的网页游戏玩家总数达到154万人,玩家平均在线时长为30分钟。
  • 南昌建材市场经销商“生意惨淡” 夹缝中求生存
  • 这两笔交易中最大的风险在于伊巴卡和塔克这个夏天即将成为自由球员,但是失去一到两名球员的痛苦和早早的在五月就被淘汰出季后赛相比就不算什么了。
  • 30城楼市松绑效果调查:仅4城成交持续回升
  • 经理们在公司会管理等级制度上低于他们的人,但是优秀的经理也有方法管理他们的上级和代表团队的同事。很多时候这意味着有效的交流,管理期望和及时寻求帮助。

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 湖北将加强房地产市场调控 防范化解市场风险
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • flame
  • 如果你拼命工作还是入不敷出,你可能没的得到与你自身价值相符的酬劳。去找一份能够给你应有报酬的工作吧。

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

10月房地产经理人信心指数微升 房企加大去化力度

View All Footnotes