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年末房企忙融资 “借新还旧”应对偿债高峰

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: “高价地”制造高价供给 楼市去库存或添新难题 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

万科或将推进智能家居系统:想重新定义“开关”涉足LED照明?

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

Siddeeq现在已经是一位退休教师居住在中西部城市Indianapolis,他表示当大学联系到他的时候他震惊了。
It was therapeutic for Warriors fans after enduring the agony of the worst collapse in Finals history the year before, but even then, the whole thing felt like "yup, this is what's supposed to happen." There was very little drama, very little debate, and in the end, the result everyone was sure of happened. That doesn't generate a lot of conversation or interest. It just kind of is what it is.
Zhang's piece is “so lush and so rich and so full and so complete,” Google Doodle team leader Ryan Germick told the Washington Post. “Every leaf seemed to have life in it.”
2. 达美乐(Dachis) 品牌喜爱度:-11%/排名:62
Oh Carmelo, I wish you still had your high school mini-fro. It was absolutely epic.
3. 没有开始创业
难怪各银行开始变得有创造力。

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The increase of these and other gases from human activity has caused the planet to warm by about 1.5 degrees Fahrenheit since the preindustrial era, which is causing land ice to melt all over the world. The oceans are rising at what appears to be an accelerating pace, and heat waves and torrential rains are intensifying.
《海底总动员2》将于2016年6月17日上映。
根据野村证券(Nomura Securities)的数据,日本ETF市场管理的资产规模为2000亿美元,比亚太其他所有ETF市场的总规模还要高出约500亿美元。8月底,日本央行持有的ETF资产的市值为1750亿美元。
A series of explosions on Aug. 12 that originated in a warehouse illegally storing hazardous chemicals in the port city of Tianjin killed 173 people, injured hundreds and left behind post-apocalyptic scenes of destruction. The blasts raised serious questions about the lax enforcement of safety regulations during China's rapid industrialization.

Footnotes

  • 传最牛钉子户拒2000万补偿 官方:补偿总价600万
  • 华尔街、大街上和华盛顿的每一个人都在不断地忘记市场周期的基本原理。请记住:《笑傲股市》(How to Make Money in Stocks)作者、《投资者商务日报》(Investors Business Daily)的比尔?奥尼尔(Bill O'Neill)说,市场的上行周期平均为3.75年,下行周期平均为九个月。

2.Jetpacks
In 2016, 1,576 foreigners became permanent Chinese residents, an increase of 163% on the previous year, according the Ministry of Public Security.
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在北约1999年对南斯拉夫的空袭中,大西洋联盟对塞尔维亚和科索沃境内数以百计的目标进行了打击。绝大多数目标都没有争议:防空阵地、军队指挥部和其他军事目标。然而对一个特殊目标的摧毁却在世界另一端掀起了声势浩大的反西方特别是反美浪潮。那个目标就是驻贝尔格莱德的中国大使馆。
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“十三五”发展规划 推动LED产业由“大”至“强”

References

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